Athens Metro

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Athens Metro
Athens Metro roundel
Black & White Train with green stripe
Athens Metro train at Anthoupoli
Overview
Native nameΜετρό Αθήνας
LocaleGreater Athens
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines3[a]
Number of stations66 served (62 owned)[b]
Daily ridership1,353,000[1]
Annual ridership493,800,000 (2013)
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata
Operation
Began operation27 February 1869; 155 years ago (1869-02-27)
Operator(s)STASY
Number of vehicles294 railcars
Technical
System length91.7 km (57.0 mi)[c][3]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Electrification
Top speed80 km/h (50 mph)

The Athens Metro (Greek: Μετρό Αθήνας, romanizedMetro Athinas) is a rapid-transit system in Greece which serves the Athens urban area. Line 1 opened as a single-track conventional steam railway in 1869 and was electrified in 1904. In 1991, Elliniko Metro S.A. constructed and extended Lines 2 and 3.[4] It has significantly changed Athens by providing a much-needed solution to the city's traffic and air pollution problem, as well as revitalising many of the areas it serves. Extensions of existing lines are under development or tender, like the Line 2 extension to Ilion where tender started in 2023, as well as a new Line 4, whose central section began construction in October 2021.[5] The Athens Metro is actively connected with the other means of public transport, such as buses, trolleys, the Athens Tram and the Athens Suburban Railway. The Athens Metro is hailed for its modernity (mainly the newer lines 2, 3), and many of its stations feature works of art, exhibitions and displays of the archaeological remains found during its construction. Photography and video-taking is permitted across the whole network[6] and street photographers often work in Athens Metro. This will be the only metro system in Greece, until the Thessaloniki Metro begins operation in 2024.

History[edit]

Piraeus–Kifissia Railway (Line 1)[edit]

Until 28 January 2000, Line 1 was the only rapid-transit line in Athens. The Athens and Piraeus Railway Company (SAP) opened a steam single-track mixed cargo and passenger railway line on 27 February 1869 and was run between Piraeus and Thiseio. It was electrified in 1904. On the 4th of February 1885 Lavrion Square-Strofyli steam narrow gauge single-track mixed cargo and passenger railway line opened and was run at the time from Attiki Square to Kifissia through Iraklio. These originally mixed cargo and passenger railway lines gradually merged and converted to a rapid-transit system. The section between Kifissia and Strofyli was abandoned.

From 1869 to 1926 the line was operated by SAP. From 1926 to 1976 the line was operated by Hellenic Electric Railways (EIS). In 1976 the EIS was nationalized and renamed Athens-Piraeus Electric Railway Company (ISAP), which continued to operate what became line 1 of the Athens Metro until 16 June 2011.[7]

1990s projects[edit]

Since the current Line 1 opened, the government has proposed many expansions to the subway network, including a 1963 plan for a fourteen-line subway network.[8] Construction of Lines 2 and 3 began in November 1992 to decrease traffic congestion and improve Athens' air quality by reducing its smog level.[4] Both lines were constructed underground. Lines 2 and 3, built by Attiko Metro S.A. and operated until 2011 by Attiko Metro Operations Company, are known respectively as the red and blue lines and were inaugurated in January 2000. Line 3 was extended to the Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport in summer 2004, and Line 2 was extended to Anthoupoli and Elliniko in 2013.

Consolidation[edit]

Until 17 June 2011,[7] the operational management of the Athens Metro network was similar to that of the London Underground network before the creation of the London Passenger Transport Board and the absorption of the Metropolitan Railway on 1 July 1933. The Greek government attempted to absorb ISAP into Attiko Metro operation company under Law 2669/1998 so the latter would be responsible for the whole network,[9] but this initiative failed.[why?] Athens Metro operations were consolidated when the Greek government enacted Law 3920/2011,[10] replacing AMEL, ISAP and Tram S.A. with Urban Rail Transport S.A. (STASY S.A.) (Greek: ΣΤΑΣΥ Α.Ε.), a subsidiary of OASA S.A. (Athens Urban Transport Organisation S.A.).[11]

Timeline[edit]

Line Segment Construction Started Year Opened
Athens Metro Line 1 Piraeus-Thiseio 1856 27 February 1869
Athens Metro Line 1 Thiseio-Omonoia 1889 17 May 1895
Athens Metro Line 1 Omonoia-Victoria January 1928 1 March 1948
Athens Metro Line 1 Victoria-Attiki 30 June 1949
Athens Metro Line 1 Attiki-Ano Patisia 12 February 1956
Athens Metro Line 1 Ano Patisia-Nea Ionia 14 March 1956
Athens Metro Line 1 Nea Ionia-Irakleio 4 March 1957
Athens Metro Line 1 Irakleio-Kifissia 10 August 1957
Athens Metro Line 2 Sepolia-Syntagma November 1992 28 January 2000
Athens Metro Line 3 Syntagma-Ethniki Amyna
Athens Metro Line 2 Syntagma-Dafni 15 November 2000[12]
Athens Metro Line 3 Syntagma-Monastiraki 22 April 2003
Athens Metro Line 2 Dafni-Agios Dimitrios April 2001 5 June 2004
Athens Metro Line 3 Ethniki Amyna-Athens Airport December 2000 30 July 2004
Athens Metro Line 1 Neratziotissa (Infill station) February 2002 6 August 2004
Athens Metro Line 2 Sepolia-Agios Antonios February 2002 9 August 2004
Athens Metro Line 3 Monastiraki-Egaleo May 2002 26 May 2007
Athens Metro Line 2 Agios Antonios-Anthoupoli May 2007 6 April 2013
Athens Metro Line 2 Agios Dimitrios-Elliniko January 2007 26 July 2013
Athens Metro Line 3 Egaleo-Agia Marina 14 December 2013
Athens Metro Line 3 Agia Marina-Nikaia July 2012 7 July 2020
Athens Metro Line 3 Nikaia-Dimotiko Theatro 10 October 2022
Athens Metro Line 4 Alsos Veikou-Goudi August 2021 2029-2030

Infrastructure[edit]

Lines and stations[edit]

The Athens Metro consists of three lines totalling 91.7 kilometres (57.0 miles) and 66 stations: Line 1 (Green) is 25.7 kilometres (16.0 miles) long with 24 stations, Line 2 (Red) is 18.7 kilometres (11.6 miles) long with 20 stations, and Line 3 (Blue) is 47.3 kilometres (29.4 mi) long with 24 stations.[3] STASY owns and operates 62 of the 66 stations: three other stations (Pallini, Paiania–Kantza and Koropi) belong to GAIAOSE and the Athens Airport station belongs to the operator of the Athens International Airport.

The system has five interchanges, at Attiki, Monastiraki, Omonia, Piraeus and Syntagma, allowing all three to interchange with each other at least once. Each line also has at least one connection with the Athens Suburban Railway, and the Athens Tram.

Outline of Athens Metro lines[3]
Line Map
colour[e]
Opened Last
extension
Type Stations Length Termini Ref.
Athens Metro Line 1 Green 27 February 1869 10 August 1957 Sub surface 24 25.7 km (16.0 mi) [16]
Athens Metro Line 2 Red 28 January 2000 26 July 2013 Deep level 20 18.7 km (11.6 mi) [17][18]
Athens Metro Line 3 Blue 28 January 2000 10 October 2022 Deep level 27 47.3 km (29.4 mi)[c] [17][19]
Total: 66[f] 91.7 km (57.0 mi)

Line 2 and the metro's exclusive portion of Line 3 are entirely underground. Line 1 is primarily overground, with a tunnel section in central Athens. The airport section of Line 3, east of the tunnel portal near Doukissis Plakentias, is open. In the tunnel sections up and down lines share a common tunnel, except for approaches to stations with an island platform (such as Egaleo). Train maintenance facilities are located at Attiki, Faliro, Irini, Piraeus, Kifissia and Thissio for Line 1, and Doukissis Plakentias, Eleonas and Sepolia for Lines 2 and 3.

The Athens Metro's three lines carried approximately 1,353,000 passengers daily in 2010.[1]

A network map of the Athens Metro system, that includes the three current lines, the under construction line 4, the tramway, the suburban railway and all the future under design extensions.[13]

Athens Metro Map


Rolling stock[edit]

The network uses standard gauge electric trains which in most places run on 750 V DC third rail, but the section of Line 3 running to the airport requires trains which can use overhead lines of 25 kV AC, 50 Hz.

The Athens Metro classifies rolling stock by "batch" for Line 1 and "generation" for Lines 2 and 3 because ISAP and AMEL used different classification systems for rolling stock before consolidation. Six types of rolling stock operate on the network, all equipped with third rail current collection systems; however, only seven second-generation trains have the necessary overhead line equipment to serve Line 3 from Doukissis Plakentias to Athens Airport.

The eighth batch (introduced in 1983) is the oldest rolling stock in passenger service, while the third generation (introduced in 2013) is the latest rolling stock in passenger service. The eighth- and tenth-batch stock is externally similar, but the former has split-flap headsigns in Johnston typeface and a cream-and-green interior colour scheme. An extensive refurbishment programme is in progress for the 8th batch (as of 2023), and to cover for trains undergoing refurbishment, up to five 1st generation Line 2/3 trains have been borrowed to operate on Line 1. Line 1 halfsets have driving cabs at both ends, unlike the Line 2/3 halfsets which have a driving cab at the outer ends, but only basic driving apparatus for shunting purposes only at the inner ends; thus, they can only operate on their own inside depots.

Line Stock Image Introduced
Athens Metro Line 1 8th batch stock Square grey-and-red train pulling into a station 1983
Athens Metro Line 1 10th batch stock Same type of train passing evergreen trees 1993
Athens Metro Line 1 11th batch stock 2000
Athens Metro Line 1 Athens Metro Line 2 Athens Metro Line 3 1st generation stock Same type of train passing line of parked cars 2000
Athens Metro Line 2 Athens Metro Line 3 2nd generation stock Subway train in station 2003 & 2004
Athens Metro Line 2 Athens Metro Line 3 3rd generation stock 2014
The west entrance to Athens Metro line 1 Victoria station.

Line 1[edit]

Name Manufacturer Image Lines Number of Coaches per Trainset Number of Doors per Side Passengers In service since About
8th Batch MAN SE, Siemens Mobility
8th Batch trainset at Kifisia (2009)
5 4 830 1983–1985 The 8th batch, also known as Columbia, from the well-known space shuttle is the oldest of the series of trainsets that runs on the Athens Metro network. As of 2023, 14 trainsets is under upgrade.
10th Batch MAN SE, AEG, Siemens Mobility, Hellenic Shipyards Co.
10th Batch trainset at Piraeus (2011)
5 4 830 1993–1995 The 10th batch is the second oldest range of wagons that runs on the Athens Metro network. They are identical in appearance with the 8th batch and known by the same nickname. An upgrade of the train is anticipated.
11th Batch Adtranz, Siemens Mobility, Hellenic Shipyards Co., Bombardier Transportation
11th Batch trainset at Neratziotissa (2007)
6 4 1002 2000–2004 The 11th batch was the only batch of Line 1 of the Athens Metro which has 6 coaches, before 1st generation trains of the Lines 2 and 3 enter service on Line 1. An upgrade of the trains is anticipated.
1st
Generation
Siemens Mobility, Daimler-Benz, Alsthοm 6 4 1,030 2000 The 1st generation is the oldest batch of 2 and 3 line trainsets and the only one in the whole network with sliding doors and not locking doors. Some first generation trains are also used on line 1.

Lines 2 & 3[edit]

Name Manufacturer Image Lines Number of Coaches per Trainset Number of Doors per side Speed
(km/h)
Passengers Units In operation
since
About
1st
Generation
Siemens Mobility, Daimler-Benz, Alsthοm 6 4 80[20] 1,030 28 2000 The 1st generation is the oldest batch of 2 and 3 line trainsets and the only one in the whole network with sliding doors and not locking doors. Some first generation trains are also used on line 1.
2nd Generation Hanwha-Rotem, Mitsubishi Vapor, Knorr-Bremse 6 4 80 (DC)
120 (DC/AC)[21]
1,062 (DC)
1,026 (DC/AC)
21 (7 DC/AC & 14 DC) 2003 The second generation operates under the standard line voltage of 750 V DC from third rail, but 7 trains from line 3 are able to operate under 25 kV 50 Hz AC from overhead catenary with a pantograph in order to serve the section from Doukissis Plakentias to the Airport.
3rd Generation Hyundai Rotem, Siemens Mobility 6 4 80[22] 1.032 28 2014 The 3rd generation is the latest model of trainsets running on the Athens Metro network.

Signalling[edit]

Line 1 uses two-aspect red/green home signals, yellow/green distant signals and a passenger information system (PIS). The current system replaced 1950s-era semaphore signals. The automatic train protection (ATP) system of Line 1 was fully installed in 2023 which replaced the previous Indusi system.[23]

Lines 2 and 3 use the Alstom automatic train supervision system (ATS) and a passenger information system (PIS). Two-aspect red/white colour signals are used at points and junctions only.

Fares[edit]

Old €1.20 (standard fee) paper Ticket, in use from September 2014 until November 2017.

Fares are prepaid, either as short term tickets valid for 90 minutes, 24 hours, 3 days, 5 days, or as long term tickets. As of September 2020, there are two types of fare products, the ATH.ENA Ticket and ATH.ENA Card, both of which are validated using a contactless system (by scanning the ticket or card at the electronic validating machines). The tickets are valid on all modes of public transport in Athens except on trains and buses to the airport.[24] Passengers cannot buy a fare on board the bus. To travel to or from the airport, passengers may buy a one-way ticket for €9 or a 3-day ticket for €20 which also includes unlimited local trips and a return trip to the airport. Arrival at the airport without having paid the appropriate fare will incur a €72 fine, reduced to €36 if paid within 10 days. Term tickets are available in 30, 90, 180, and 365 day periods and are available only with a personalized ATH.ENA Card. Reduced fares are available for university students, seniors, disabled and persons under 18. During a fare control the passengers that are entitled to a reduced fare have to show ID card, student card or passport.[25] Children under the age of 6 are entitled to travel for free with all means of transportation. On buses and trams the ticket or card must be validated only when entering the vehicle/car by scanning the ticket at the electronic validating machines. At metro or Suburban Railway stations, the ticket or card must be validated at the electronic gates when entering and exiting the station.

Archaeological excavations and exhibits[edit]

During construction of the metro tunnels, artifacts of archaeological interest were discovered and rescue archaeology was employed. Teams of archaeologists worked ahead of, then with, engineers for six years, protecting and recording archaeological finds (streets, houses, cemeteries, sanctuaries, public workshops, foundry pits, kilns, aqueducts, wells, cisterns, drains and sewage tunnels). This afforded new insight into the city's ancient topography, through unprecedented infrastructure development combined with the study and preservation of archaeological data. Exhibitions of ancient artifacts or replicas are found at a number of metro stations, including Monastiraki, Akropoli and Syntagma.

Open indoor area with ticket windows, fare-collection machines and an escalator
Concourse level of Syntagma Metro station (2018).

Future[edit]

The Athens Metro masterplan, as presented in October 2022, consists of the following projects:[26]

Line Segment Length Stations
Metro Line 1 Petralona-SNFCC 4.1 km (2.5 mi) 4
Metro Line 1 KAT-Komvos Varympompis 4.4 km (2.7 mi) 3*
Metro Line 2 Anthoupoli-Agios Nikolaos 4 km (2.5 mi) 3
Metro Line 2 Agios Nikolaos-Acharnes 5.5 km (3.4 mi) 3
Metro Line 2 Elliniko-Glyfada 3.6 km (2.2 mi) 3
Metro Line 4 Goudi-Lykovrysi 12.1 km (7.5 mi) 10
Metro Line 4 Alsos Veikou-Petroupoli 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 6
Metro Line 4** Evangelismos-Ano Ilioupoli 3.4 km (2.1 mi) 3

*The current Kifissia terminal will be demolished and rebuilt as an underground station.

**The Development Plan refers it as Line 4 branch but there are unofficial plans that this branch is part of the future Line 5.

If and when these projects are completed, the Athens Metro is expected to reach 141.7 km (88.0 mi) in length and serve a total of 110 stations by 2040.

Line 4[edit]

A fourth line is planned for the Athens Metro and it has been incorporated in the roadmap for the development and expansion of public transport in Athens since 2005. The new line in its totality will extend over a length of 38.2 km (23.7 mi), adding thirty five (35) new stations to the Athens Metro system. The cost of the entire project is estimated at 3.3 billion EUR.[27] The recommendation is for lighter rolling stock than the type used in existing lines of Athens Metro which would operate automatically without a driver. In November 2020, Alstom was chosen to supply the line with 20 4-car automated Metropolis trains, operated under Urbalis 400 signalling system.[28]

The first phase of Line 4 will be between Alsos Veikou and Goudi stations, predicting fifteen (15) new stations and a length of 12.8 km (8.0 mi) of new track. An invitation to tender for the construction of the first phase of Line 4 was issued in September 2018. The construction is expected to start by mid-2020 and the opening of the line by circa 2028. The estimated cost for constructing the first phase of the new line is 1.51 billion EUR. Currently, the project of the first phase is considered to follow a PPP scheme which might be extended for constructing the whole new line. An alternative solution is a mixed funding between the EIB and the Greek State. It is also a high-profile candidate project to be included in the Juncker Plan of EU that will include also the second phase of Line 4 of Athens Metro.

The European Investment Bank is allocating a €730 million loan over 30 years to finance the building of the first segment of the Line 4 metro, which will connect Alsos Veikou and Goudi. The initiative will also assist Athens by reducing the number of private automobiles on the road by 53 000, resulting in 318 tonnes fewer CO2 released daily.[29][30][31][32]

Long-term plan[edit]

On 15 November 2008, Greek newspaper Ta Nea reported that the Greek government was considering a circular line from Ano Ilisia to Faros, via Dafni and Eleonas, as part of a "100 km (62 mi)" network.[33] This proposal evolved to form part of what is now the long-term Athens Metro Future Regulatory Plan (or the Souflias plan)[34] on 13 April 2009, which called for an 220 km (140 mi) network of eight lines and 200 stations.[35][36]

The Souflias plan was last revised in January 2012,[37] and saw limited activity until October 2020, when Elliniko Metro announced that they were reconsidering some extensions from the plan, including the extension of Line 1 from Kifissia to Nea Erythraia, the extensions of Line 2 to Ano Liosia and Glyfada, Line 6 from Melissia to Perama, and Line 7 from Haidari to Kalamaki.[34] In December 2021, a part of the southern branch of Line 6 was reconsidered as a branch of Line 1 from Thiseio to the SNFCC in Kallithea, with intermediate stations at Hamosternas, Plateia Davaki, and Lofos Filaretou.[38][13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 3 lines are in operation, with 1 line Line 4 under construction.
  2. ^ For a list of stations that the Athens Metro serves, see List of Athens Metro stations.
  3. ^ a b Including 20.7 km (12.9 mi) of mixed use suburban rail.[2]
  4. ^ Between Doukissis Plakentias and Athens Airport.
  5. ^ None of the organisations behind the construction or operation of the Athens Metro specify the exact line colour values for web or print, but they agree on a general colour scheme for identifying lines.[13][14][15]
  6. ^ There are 66 stations after counting interchange stations once. Otherwise, there would be 72.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Homepage - The Company - Attiko Metro S.A." Attiko Metro S.A. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  2. ^ "Transit in Athens (history)". Attiko Metro. Athens. 7 November 2022. Archived from the original on 7 November 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Company presentation". STASY (in Greek). Athens. 7 November 2022. Archived from the original on 7 November 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  4. ^ a b "AttikoMetro Inside – Base Project". Attiko Metro S.A. 9 September 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  5. ^ "Υποβολή φακέλων εκδήλωσης ενδιαφέροντος στο διαγωνισμό για την επέκταση του Μετρό προς Ίλιον". Athens Transport (in Greek). 3 May 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  6. ^ "synigoros.gr" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Urban Rail Transport SA (STASY SA): Urban Rail Transport S.A". Urban Rail Transport S.A. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  8. ^ Hekimoglou, Achilleas (24 August 2013). Οραμα για 14 γραμμές Μετρό στην Αττική από το 2000 (in Greek). Το Βήμα (To Vima). Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  9. ^ "Law 2669/1998". Εφημερίδας της Κυβερνήσεως (in Greek). Athens: Government of Greece. A (283). 18 December 1998. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  10. ^ Law 3920, Government Gazette issue A-33, 3 March 2011.
  11. ^ Ministerial Decision 28737/2637, Government Gazette issue B-1454, 17 June 2011
  12. ^ Delezos, Kostas; Renieris, Antonis (14 November 2000). "To… Dafni by Metro". Ta Nea (in Greek). Athens: Alter Ego Media. Archived from the original on 19 October 2022. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  13. ^ a b c "Athens Metro Lines Development Plan" (PDF). Attiko Metro. Athens. September 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  14. ^ "Athens Public Transportation Map". Transport for Athens. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Metro and Tram Map" (PDF). STASY (in Greek). Athens. 11 October 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  16. ^ "Stations". Athens Piraeus Electric Railways (in Greek). Athens. 17 January 2012. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  17. ^ a b Delezos, Kostas (28 January 2000). "From today, Athens moves to the rhythm of the Metro". Ta Nea (in Greek). Athens: Alter Ego Media. Archived from the original on 18 October 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  18. ^ Klonos, Artemis (29 July 2013). "Athens metro reaches Elliniko". International Railway Journal. Omaha: Simmons-Boardman Publishing. Archived from the original on 18 October 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  19. ^ Burroughs, David (12 October 2022). "Athens Metro Line 3 Phase 2 extension opens". International Railway Journal. Omaha: Simmons-Boardman Publishing. Archived from the original on 17 October 2022. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  20. ^ "Πρώτη γενιά συρμών – ΑΤΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ Α.Ε." ametro.gr (in Greek). Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  21. ^ [1] Δεύτερη γενιά συρμών, Αττικό Μετρό Α.
  22. ^ "Τρίτη γενιά συρμών – ΑΤΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ Α.Ε." (in Greek). Archived from the original on 29 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  23. ^ "Ενεργοποιήθηκε το Σύστημα Ασφάλειας Κυκλοφορίας Συρμών στη γραμμή του ΗΣΑΠ". Athens Transport (in Greek). 20 March 2023. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  24. ^ "Tickets" (PDF). OASA S.A. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  25. ^ "Travel Cards". STASY S.A./OASA S.A. (in Greek). Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  26. ^ "Development plan of Athens Metro lines" (PDF). ametro.gr (in Greek). 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  27. ^ "Attiko Metro Γραμμή 4 (Line 4)". Attiko Metro S.A. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  28. ^ "Alstom consortium selected for first section of Athens Metro Line 4". Alstom. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  29. ^ Bank, European Investment (17 May 2023). "Cohesion and regional development Overview 2023". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  30. ^ pamela (10 February 2022). "Financing agreement for Alsos Veikou – Goudi metro section". Railway PRO. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  31. ^ Rani, Archana (8 February 2022). "Attiko receives $663m EIB loan for new Athens Metro line". Railway Technology. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  32. ^ Bank, European Investment (11 September 2023). "Sustainable transport overview 2023". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  33. ^ Prokopis, Giogiakas (15 November 2008). "New lines for 100 km Metro". Ta Nea (in Greek). Athens: Alter Ego Media. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  34. ^ a b "Attiko Metro pulls the "Souflias plan" out of the drawer". Athens Transport (in Greek). 13 October 2020. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  35. ^ "New Regulatory Plan for Athens and Attica Prefecture". Attiko Metro. Athens. 13 April 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  36. ^ "Regulatory Plan of Attica: Development Plan of Future Metro Lines" (PDF). Attiko Metro (in Greek). Athens. April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  37. ^ "Athens Metro Regulatory Plan" (PDF). Attiko Metro (in Greek). Athens. January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  38. ^ Rizos, Pavlos (16 December 2021). "Athens Metro: all the new extensions to the West, North and South Suburbs". ypodomes.com (in Greek). Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.

External links[edit]

Metro map